What an honor to be your instructional leader, principal, and steward of excellence.  My vision for Paakuma’ K-8, is to not only ensure that our students receive a world class academic experience, yet to teach them how to strive and succeed in a culturally and linguistically diverse world through the works of our DUAL immersion program and AVID implementation.  At Paakuma’ K-8, students will be given the tools to understand perseverance as they strive to meet the demands of the common core state standards, become masters of technology, attain AVID organizational and study skills, as well as have the opportunity to become involved with Cajon High School Career Pathways.  Our schoolwide AVID implementation will enforce the understanding and importance of organization, study skills, timeliness, and self-assessment which will set the trajectory for our young scholars in order to succeed in our rapidly advancing and competitive world.  With and through Advancement Via Individual Determination, at Paakuma’ K-8, we can exceed, by far, the 90% college acceptance norm.

Victoria Morales


Paakuma’ K-8

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Biography of Paakuma’

Paakuma’ or Santos Manuel, Kika’ (Leader) of the Yuhaviatam Clan of Serrano Indians, is known by four names, depending on language and cultural context: an Indian name, Paakuma’; a nickname, Tawinat; a Spanish name, Manuel Santos; and a reversal of his Spanish name, Santos Manuel. The last is the name we know him by today. He told anthropologists that “his only real and proper Indian name” is Paakuma’. Such “proper Indian” names were usually given by a paxaa’ (one of the Serrano Indian clan leaders) as part of a naming ceremony.

Indigenous people of the San Bernardino valleys and mountains were collectively identified by Spanish explorers as Serrano, a term meaning highlander. Serrano living near what is now Big Bear Lake were called Yuhaviatam, or “People of the Pines.”

In 1866, to clear this area for settlers and gold miners, a state militia conducted a violent, 32-day campaign against native men, women, and children. Yuhaviatam leader Paakuma’/Santos Manuel guided his people from their ancient homeland ultimately to a village site in the San Bernardino foothills.

In 1891, the San Manuel Indian Reservation was established by Presidential Executive Order. The reservation is named after Santos Manuel.

Santos Manuel is remembered as a community builder, a person who, following years of turmoil, reached out to the people of the San Bernardino Valley to secure a future for his people. In his later years, he worked with several government commissions to secure the tribe’s political, legal, land, and other rights and shared knowledge of the Serrano culture and language with anthropologists, thereby preserving a record for future generations of tribal members and the community as a whole.

To this day, his belief of sharing is still reflected.
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Biografía de Paakuma’

A Paakuma’ o Santos Manuel, Kika (líder) de la tribu Yuhaviatam de los indios serranos, se le conoce por cuatro nombres dependiendo del lenguaje y contexto cultural: un nombre indio, Paakuma’; un apodo, Tawinat; un nombre español, Manuel Santos y un cambio en el orden de su nombre español, Santos Manuel. Por el presente se le conoce por el último nombre. Él les dijo a los antropólogos que “su único y verdadero nombre correcto indio” es Paakuma’. Generalmente como parte de una ceremonia de nombramiento, tales nombres “propios indios” se dan por un paxaa’ (uno de los líderes de la tribu de los indios serranos).

Los exploradores españoles identificaron en conjunto a la gente indígena de las montañas y valles de San Bernardino como serranos, un término que significa montañés. Los serranos que vivían cerca de lo que ahora es Big Bear Lake se llamaban Yuhaviatam o “gente de los pinos”.

En 1866, para apartar esta área para los colonizadores y mineros de oro, una milicia estatal llevó a cabo una violenta campaña durante 32 días contra los hombres, mujeres y niños nativos. El líder Yuhaviatam, Paakuma’/Santos Manuel guío a su gente de su tierra natal antigua a una aldea situada en la falda de las montañas de San Bernardino.

En 1891, se estableció por una orden ejecutiva presidencial la reserva de los indios de San Manuel. La reserva lleva el nombre de Santos Manuel.

Se recuerda a Santos Manuel como un fundador de la comunidad, una persona quién, tras años de agitación, se acercó a la gente del valle de San Bernardino para asegurar un futuro para su gente. En sus últimos años, trabajó con varias comisiones del gobierno para garantizar los derechos políticos, legales, de tierra y otros tribuales y compartió conocimientos de la cultura e idioma de los serranos con antropólogos, así preservando un registro para las generaciones futuras de los miembros de la tribu y para la comunidad entera.

Hasta la fecha, todavía se refleja su creencia de compartir.


17825 Sycamore Creek Loop Pkwy., San Bernardino, CA 92407 | Phone: (909) 355-3137 | Fax: (909)355-3150

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